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Catalog Number 2008.85.0
Object Name Book
Accession number 2008.85
Summary Part 4 is about the Negro in World War One; beginning on page 189.

Table of Contents: Part 1: Resume of the Historical Background of the American Negro, Background in Africa and America (Native Races and Culture of America; The Slave Trade and Transplanting of the Negro into the New World; History of Negro Slavery in Central and South America, and in the Colonies of North America; Economic and Climatic Factors Influencing the Distributuion of Slavery in the United States; Service of the Negro to the North and South in the Civil War; The Begining of Negro Education in the Southern States); Part Two, The Negro in the Northern States Since the Civil War; Economic Status of the Northern Negroes (Opportunities in the Skilled and Unskilled Trades; In Domestic Service; Enlarging Field for Negro Labor in the Big Industries; Relation of the Negro to Union Labor; Negroes in the Mercantile Business and in the Professtions); Domestic and Social Life in New York (The Housing Problem; Negro Quarters in New York; Harlem, the Great Negro Capital; Social Activities abd Social Stratification; Human Nature As Seen at the Bottom and at the Top); Domestic and Social Life in Chicago (The Black Belt of Chicago; Character of the Houses; Opposition to Selling or Renting Houses to Negroes in White Districts; Methods Employed to Keep the Negroes Out; Claim That Negro Invasions Depreciate Property; Negro Quartersin Philadelphia and Other Cities); Racial Separation (Negro Churches, Clubs, Fraternal Orders, Hotels, Theaters, Dance Halls, and So Forth; Refusal or Discouragment of Negro Patronage by Public Resorts and Private Businesses Primarily for Whites; Avoidance of Embarrassment through Exercise of Good Sense by Both Races); The Negro as a Citizen (His Part in Politics; Bad Influence of the Negro Vote in Some Cities; Share of the Negro in the Spoils of Office); Criminality of the Negro in the North (Reason for Greater Criminality in the North Than in the South; Reason for Greatest Criminality in the West; Reason for Existence of Great Crime Center in Chicago; Paramount Importance of Bad Environment As a Cause of Negro Crime); Friction Between the Races (Frequent Occirrence of Clashes and Riots Due To Race Friction; The Springfield Riot of 1908; The Waukegan Riot of 1917; The St. Louis Riots of 1917; The Chicago Riot of 1919); Educational Status of Northern Negroes (Problems of Avoiding Race Friction in the Elementary Schools; Social Seperation of the Races in the High Schools; Lack of Elementary Education Adapted to the Negro's Needs; Negroes in Northern and Western Universities); Religious Aspects of Northern Negroes (The Northern Negro Preacher in Politics; Negro Churches and Negro Membership in White Churches; Tribulations of the Negro Pastor; Character of Negro Preachers; Example of Heroic Ministry); Part Three, The Negro In the Southern States Since the Civil War, The Negro in Economic Life (Negro Landowners, Tenants, and Wage Workers in the Field of Agriculture; Description of Rural Negro Homes; Decline in Number of Negroes in Domestic Service; Increasing Opportunities for the Negro in Manufacturing and Mechanical Industries); Domestic and Social Life of the Negro (Negro Quarters in Cities; Looseness of Family Ties; Handicap of Negro Mothers in Having to Work Away from Home and Support the Family; Short Period of Infancy; Progress in the Development of Chastity in Spite of Adverse Conditions; Rich and Varied Social Life); The Negro as a Political Factor (Strength of the Negro Vote and Possibilites of Negro Domination; Franchise Laws Limiting the Negro Vote; Reasons for the Grandfather Clause; Result of Removal of the Negro Menace in Bringing a Better Class of White Men into Politics); Regulaton of Non-Political Rights (Separation of the Races on Railway Trains and Street Cars; Impracticality of Street-car Seperation in Large Cities; The Problem of the Sleeping Car; Negroes Have Their Own Hotels, Restaurants, Theatres, and So Forth); The Negro as a Violator of the Law (Greater Frequency of Negro Crime in the City than in the Country; Greater Frequency of Crime Against the Person Than Against Property; Erroneous Notions as to the Extent of Negro Theft and Rape; Paramount Importance of Bad Environment as a Factor in Negro Crime); The Lynching Practice in the South; Its Origin and Present Tendency; The Kinds of Crime Which Provoke Lynchings; Decline in Cases of Rape and in Number of Lynchings; Effort to Repress Lynchings by Educating Public Sentiment and by Raising the Cultural Status of Both Races); Other Outrages Upon Negroes (Assaults on Negroes by White Mobs; Destruction of Property; Expulsion from the Country; Influence of the Ku Klux; Race Riots); The Peonage of Negroes (Its Origin; Character and Extent of It; Laws Which Encourage Peopage; The Remedy; General Extent of Outrages upon the Negro; What the White People are Doing and Should Do to Give the Negro a Square Deal); The Negro Before Southern Courts (How the Negro Fares When he Commits Crime against the Whites and When the Whites Commit Crime against Him; White Friends of the Negro in COurt; Frequent Renderings of Signal Justice to the Negro by White Juries); The Negro as a Convict (Various Systems of Employing the Convicts; The Lease or Contract System; The State Farm System; The Chaingang; Advantages and Drawbacks of the Several Systems; Progress of the SOuth in Solving the Problem of Convict Labor); Public School Education (Negro Common Schools in the South; Percentage of Negro Children Enrolled; Progress in Dunubusgubg Ukkteracy; Increase in Length of the School Term; Higher Qualifications and Salaries for Teachers; Comparative Cpst pf Megrp amd White Schools; Development of High Schools, State Normals, and Local Training-scholls; Movement for Model School-houses); Institutions of Higher Learning (Institutions of Higher Learning and for Technical Instruction Supported by the States and Federal Government; Institutions of Higher Learning Supported by White Religious Organizations; Endowments of White Philanothropists to Aid Negro Educations; Donations of the Negroes Themselves for the Education of Their Race); Institutions of Higher Learning (Con't) (Institutions of Higher Learning Supported by the Negroes Themselves; Endowed and Variously Supported Professional and Industrial Schools; The Work of Hampton and Tuskegge; Public Libraries for Negroes); The Situation in Higher Education (Gemeral Estimate of Institutions of Higher Learning for Negroes; Too Many of Such Institutions; Many of Them Badly Located; Need of Elimination and Cooperation in the Intrests of Efficiency); Religious Development of the Negro (Church Affiliations; Emotional Outbursts at Revival Meetings; Character of Negro Preachers; Their Former Tendemcy to Become Leaders in Politics; Social Aspects of the Negro Church; Great Value of Religion for the Colored People); Part Four, The NEgro In the War, Training Camps and Race Troubles ( First Employment of Negro Troops; Negro Selectmen in the Training Camps; Race Troubles in Texas, South Carolina, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Elsewhere); Service of American Troops as a Whole (Service of the American Troops in Stopping the German Drive in 1918, and in Forcing the Germans Back; The St. Mihiel Offensive and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive); Service of the 369th Infantry (Employment in the Building Terminals at St. Nazaire, January, 1918; Experience of the Third Battalion in Guarding German Prisoners in Brittany; The Taking Over of a Section in the Champagne District; Transference to the Line Below Minancourt in June; The Last German Drive, July 15; Participation in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive of September 26); Service of the 370th Infantry (Occupation of a St. Mihiel Sector June 21; Transference to Argonne Forest July 4; To the Soissons Sector in August; And to the Oise-Aisne Canal in September; Participation in the Allied Offensive of September and October Which Drove the Germans across the Belgian Border); Service of the 371st Regiment (Activities Near Verdum; In the MeuseArgonne Drive; Spotlessness of Record); Service of the 372nd Regiment (Occupation of Line in Argonne Forest; Trouble with Colored Officers ; Discharge or Transference of Many Colored Officers; Occupation of Line in the Champagne Sector; Good Account of Themselves GIver in the September 26th Offensive); Service of the 92nd Division (Taking Over of the St. Die Sector August 25; Transerferemce tp tje Argonne September 21; Two Flights from the Front; Court-martial of Leaders for Cowardice; Transference to the Marbache Sector October 5; Participation in the Final Allied Drive of November 10 and 11); Worth of the Negor Troops ( Summary of the Services of the Colored Units; Recipients of the Croix de Guerre; Citations forDistinguished Service; General Bullard's Criticisms of the 92nd Division; General Estimate of the Negro as a Soldier; Enlivening Effect of Negro Regimental Bands in the Camps; Introduction of the French People to Jazz Music); Part Five Negro Migration, Migration Previous to 1914 (Movement of the Negro During the Days of Slavery; Escape of Runaways to Free Soil; Attraction of Free Negroes to the West and to the Industrial Centers in the South; Trend of Negro Migration after the Civil War; Exodus to the West in 1879; Moment from the Farms to the Towns; Comcurrent Migration of Negroes and Whites to the North and West); Recent Migration (Extent of Migration North and South; Northern-born Negroes More Migrant that Southern-born; Southern Negro Migration between States; Excess of Volume of White Migration Over That of Negro Migration; Causes Which Have Influenced the Migrants; Advantages and Disadvantages of the Migration to Both races; Gains of the South in Both Negro and White Population); Part Six The Negro in Literature and Art Writings of Northern Whites (References to the Negro by Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper; The Anti-slavery Poetry of Whittier, Lowell and Whitman; Mrs. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin; Olmsted's Journeys Through the South; Sociological Studies of the Negro); Mark Twain's Delineation (Pudd'nhead Wilson, Dealing with the Tragedy of the Mulatto; Tom Sawyer Abroad; General Attitude of Mark Twain Toward th Negro); Writings of Southern Whites (Joel Chandler Harris's Uncle Remus and Other Stories; Thomas Nelson Page, the Interpreter of the Virginia Slave; Dialect Stories of Ambrose Gonzales; Novels of Tom Dixon; James Lane Allen; Other Authors Dealing with the Negro); Negro Poets (Paul Laurence Dunbar; Claude McKay; James Weldon Johnson; Means, Hawkins, Corrothers, and Fenton Johnson; Recent Tendencies in Negro Peotry; The Tragedy of the Mulattoes Revealed in Poetry); Negro Novelists and Historians (Novels of Chesnutt and Dunbar; Historical Studies of Williams, Brawley Scott, Grimke, and Others); The Negro on the Race Problem (Personality and Points of View of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B DuBois, and James D. Corrothers; Discussions of the Broblem by Thomas, Holtzclaw, Kelly Miller, and Others); Negro Folk Songs (Their African Origin; Spirituals of the Southern Plantations; Funeral Songs; Work Songs; Satirical and Humorous Songs; Influence of Negro Folk SOngs on the Music of the Whites); Modern Negro Music; Negro Dance (Negro Music Since the Civil War; Negro Composers and Vocal Artists; The Jubilee Singers; The Famous "Blind Tom" and Other Instrumentalists; Ragtime and Jazz; The African Dance and Its Modification in America; Blending of the Dance with Religious Exercises); Negro Drama, Painting, and Sculpture (Ira Oldridge and Charles Gilpin as Dramatists; Henry O. Tanner, E.W.Scott and AlbertSmith as Paiters; Edmonia Lewis and Meta Warrick as Sculptors); The Negro Press (Reprensentative Newspapers and Magazines; Contrast between Northern and Southern Papers; Overemphasis of Negro's Grievances by the Negro Press; Obligations of Both the Negro and the White Press to Bring About Better Race Relations); Part Seven Proposed Solutions of the Negro Problem, The Nature of the Problem (A[[rpach from the Standpoint of History, Biology, Anthropology and Psychology; Th Aurthor's Personal Observations of the Negro in the United States; Definition of Race; The Problem of Harmonizing the Interests of Two Unlike Races in the Same Territory and Under the Same Government); Amalgamation: Argument of Equality (Argument that Races are Equal; Standards for Measuring Superiority of One Race over Another in Physical Appearance; Difference in Ideals of Aesthetic Values; Question in the Mentak Equality of Races; Humanitarians and Men of Science who Uphold the Doctrine of Race Equality); Amalgamation: Argument of Inequality (Authors Who Hold that Races are Endowed with Unequal Capacities; Darwin; Romanes; Galton; Tylor; Keane; Marett; Gobineau; Taine; Huntionton; Dixon; Osborn; Angell; East; Grant; Wissler and Others); Writers on Negro Inferiority (Sir H.H. Johnson; Lombroso; Carlyle; Jefferson; Shaler; Hart; Evans; Bryant and Others; Question of the Superiority of the Mulatto); Difference of Races (Relation of the Size of the Brain to Intelligence; Inferences from the Smaller Brain of the Negro; Non-significance of Size of the Brain in Determining the Mental Capacity; Inferiority of the Negro As Shown by Psychological Tests Applied to Negroes and Whites; Lack of Standard for Determining the Superiority of One Race over Another; The Indisputable Fact of Race Difference); Negro-Caucasian Physicak Contrasts (Anatomy and Physiology of the Negro; Resistance to Disease; Muscular Strength; Acuteness of the Senses; Wide Difference among the Negroes Themselves); The Psyche of the Negro (Cheerfulness; Impulsiveness; Vanity; Improvidence Frankness; Truthfulness; Sympathetic Response; Emotionalism; Intolerance of Discilpine Restlessness; Irrational Thinking; Reminiscent Imagination; Feeble Inhibiting Power, etcetera); Biological Aspects of Amalgamation (The Function of Crossing among Plants and Animals; Consequences of Crossing Near and Distantly Related Types; Importance as a Factor in Crossings of the Quality of the Characters Inherited; Biolocial Considerations Weighing Against Amalgamation); Psychological Aspects of Amalgamation (The Cause of Racial Affinities and Antipaties; Natural Impulses Which Develop Consciousness of Kind; Control of Consciousness of Kind over the Social and Sexual Relations between Animal Groups; Illicit Sex Relations between Different Races; Operation of Psycgological Laws to Prevent Too Intimate Inbreeding and Too Distant Outbreeding); Sociological Aspects (Question of Importance of Amalgamation As A Factor in the Evolution of Culture; Light on the Question from History; Social Conditions Favorable to Cultural Advance); Sociological Aspects (Con't) (Dependence of the Value of Amalgamation Upon The Culture Level of the Races Forming the Amalgam; The Effect of Contact of Races on Different Levels and on the Level of Culture; Beneficial Effects of Amalgamation of Races on High Levels of Culture and on Nearly the Same Levels); Extent of Amalgamation (Decline of Lawful Marriage Shown by Statistics on Intermarriage; Excess of Number of Marriages between White Women and Negro Men over Number between Negro Women and White Men; Inferior Character of the Whites and Blacks who Intermarry; Marked Diminution of Illicit Intercourse between the Races); Opposition to Amalgamation (Sentiment of the Whites and Negroes against Amalgamation; Representative Opinions of Men of Both Races; Unity of the Spokesmen of Negroes of the South Against Amalgamation; The Futility of Arguing Amalgamation As a Solution of the Race Problem); Colonization as a Solution (Efforts to Colonize the Negro in Africa; Lincoln's Plan of Colonizing the Negro in the West indies; Archer's Idea of Colonizing the Negro in lower California; Views of Henry M. Stanley and Otehrs on Colonization; The Marcus Garvey Scheme; Question of the Negro's Aptitude for Colonization); Race Segregation as a Solution (Natural Tendency of the Races to Kepp Apart; Negro Segregation in America; Opposition of the Negroes to Enforced Segregation; Advantages and Disadvantages of Segregation; Views of James Bryce on the Subject); A Free State in the Black Belt (Proposal to Create a Colored Free State out of the Southern Black Belt; Possibility That Immigration of Dark Whites from Southern Europe or Mexico May Lead to a Hybrid Race Similar to That of Tropical South America; Supposition That the Political Power of This Hyrbid Race Would Be Intolerable to the Northern and Western States, and Lead to the Erection of a Colored Free State); Civil Equality as a Solution (Practical Difficulties of Enforcing Civil Equality in a Nation of Racial Diversity; Failure to Enforce Civil Equality in the South During the Reconstruction Period; Result of Effort to Eliminate Color Discrimination in the Franchise; Theory of john Stuart Mill That Only One Race Can Govern in a One Territory; Theory of Charles Francis Adams That the Principle of Equality Applied to the Negro and Caucasian Works Only Chaos); White Supremacy As a Solution (Unwillingness of the Caucasian to Divide Responsibility with Another Race in the Same Territory; The Caucasian's Strong Sense of Consciousness of Kind and Strong Snese of Property Rights; Theory of Carlyle That the Right to Hold and Control Territory Belongs to the Race Best Fitted to Use it; Superior Claims of the Caucasian to Territory in America); Education As the Solution (Argument That It Is Unjust to Place the Burden of Educating the Negro upon the South and That the National government Should Help; Views of the Ex-President Taft, Raymond Patterson, William H. H. Hart, and Others); Different Negro Points of View (Interest in Social Equality and in Political Measures amond Northern Negros; Ideas of DuBois and Booker Washington Contrastyed; Denunciation of Roosevelt and Harding by Northern Negroes for Their Remarks on the Race Problem; Evidence That the Negroes Are Losing Ground Because of Their Radical Leadership); Part Eight: The Future of the Negro, Biological Chances of Survival (Absence of a Solution of the Negro Problem in Social Science; Relinquishment of the Problem to the BiologicalPrinciple of the Survival of the Fittest; Probability of the Survival of the Negro from the Standpoint of History and Vital Statistics); Economic Chances of Survival (Probability of the Survival of the Negro from the Standpoint of His Economic Status; His Apparent Failure to Advance Up to 1895; Gloomy Predictions for His Future at That Time; Wonderful Strides After 1895 under the Leadership of Booker Washington; Rise of a Prosperous Negro Middle Class; Problem of the Ability of the Negro to Keep Pace with the Ever0-increasing Specialization and Intensification of Industry); Part Nine: Paths of Hope, Racial Cooperation (Grounds for an Encouraging Outlook; Lines of Endeavor Favoring Survival; Need of the Races for More Knowledge of Each Other and More Friendly Cooperation; Recent Efforts Towards Inter-racial Understanding and Uplift; Work of the Y.M.C.A., University Professors, the Commission on Inter-racial Cooperation and Other Organizations; Part Played in Uplift by Southern White Women); Racial Social Adjustment (Necessity for Effective Cooperation of inter-racial Understanding on the Social Question; Variations of the Color Line under Different Conditions of Race Contact; The Natural Tendency of Unlike Races to Live Apart; Contrast Between the Northern and Southern Negroes on the Social Question; Tighter Drawing of the Color Line Resulting from Agitation against It; Hope of Mutual Understanding on the Social Question and of Increasing Inter-racial Cooperation); Suggested Spheres of Negro Activity ( Propitiousness for the Survival of the Negro of Conditions Which Minimize Competition with the Whites; Advantages of the Natural Tendency of the Negro to Keep Apart; Need of Training More Negroes for Skilled Labor and for Professional Careers; Need of Education Adapted to the Negro's Cultural Status and Spheres of Activity); Good Homes, Less Politics, More Vision (Paths of Hope in the Direction of Better Dwelling-houses and Better Protection of the Negro's Home; The Suppression of Mobs; Less Concentration upon Politics; Better Understanding Between the North and South on the Political Question; Removal of Incentives for the White Demagogue; Golden Opportunities Now Beckoning to the NEgro of Thrift); Faith in Achievement (Paths of Hope in the Direction of Revivification of the Negro's Religion; The Development of His Natural Aesthetic Aptitudes; The Complexity and Multiplicity of the Difficulties of the Negro Problem; Likelihood of Compensating Advantages to Both Races If Each Faces the Problem with Soldierly Courage and Faith in Human Destiny); List of Principle Sources Used in the Preparation of the Text; Index.
Title The Negro in American Life
Author Dowd, Jerome
Published Date 1926
Publisher Century
Published Place New York
Subjects Africa
African American
Civil rights
Race relations
Racially mixed people
OCLC Number 1536182
Library of Congress Control Number unk82073885